Box , Kumba, Cameroon. Graviola Annona muricata is a small deciduous tropical evergreen fruit tree, belonging to the Annonaceae family, and is widely grown and distributed in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The aerial parts of graviola have several functions: the fruits have been widely used as food confectionaries, while several preparations, especially decoctions of the bark, fruits, leaves, pericarp, seeds, and roots, have been extensively used in traditional medicine to treat multiple ailments including cancers by local communities in tropical Africa and South America. The reported therapeutic benefits of graviola against various human tumors and disease agents in in vitro culture and preclinical animal model systems are typically tested for their ability to specifically target the disease, while exerting little or no effect on normal cell viability.
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Box , Kumba, Cameroon. Graviola Annona muricata is a small deciduous tropical evergreen fruit tree, belonging to the Annonaceae family, and is widely grown and distributed in tropical and subtropical regions around the world.
The aerial parts of graviola have several functions: the fruits have been widely used as food confectionaries, while several preparations, especially decoctions of the bark, fruits, leaves, pericarp, seeds, and roots, have been extensively used in traditional medicine to treat multiple ailments including cancers by local communities in tropical Africa and South America.
The reported therapeutic benefits of graviola against various human tumors and disease agents in in vitro culture and preclinical animal model systems are typically tested for their ability to specifically target the disease, while exerting little or no effect on normal cell viability. Over phytochemical ingredients have been reported in graviola extracts prepared from different plant parts.
The specific bioactive constituents responsible for the major anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and other health benefits of graviola include different classes of annonaceous acetogenins metabolites and products of the polyketide pathway , alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols, and others.
This review summarize s the current understanding of the anticancer effects of A. It also includes discussion of our current understanding of possible mechanisms of action, with the hope of further stimulating the development of improved and affordable therapies for a variety of ailments.
Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide. This rapid increase is due to both an aging and growing population, along with carcinogens, infections, genetic mutations, hormones, immune conditions, and the adoption of behavioral and dietary risk factors, such as smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and environmental pollutants [ 3 ]. The risk factors may act singly or in concert to cause mutation of normal cells [ 4 ]. Many of these mutations alter the expression or activity of key gene products, causing unregulated cell division leading to cancer.
The most commonly used chemotherapy drugs are antimetabolites, DNA-interacting agents, antitubulin agents, hormones, and molecular targeting agents, all of which work to destroy cancerous cells or limit their proliferation [ 5 ]. However, most cytotoxic drugs act on both cancerous and healthy cells and therefore elicit side effects such as hair loss, bone marrow suppression, drug resistance, gastrointestinal lesions, neurologic dysfunction, and cardiac toxicity [ 5 ].
Consequently, development of new anticancer agents with higher efficacy, selectivity, and little or no side effects is an urgent goal. Natural products, especially phytochemicals, have been used to help mankind sustain health since the dawn of medicine [ 4 ]. Phytotherapy also called herbalism or herbal medicine has provided remedies for ailments, including cancer, to the present day [ 6 ]. Dietary phytochemicals have many built-in advantages over synthetic compounds due to their proven safety, low cost, and oral bioavailability [ 7 ].
However, it is only recently that researchers have begun to elucidate the mode of action of plant-derived agents at the molecular, cellular, and tissue level [ 8 — 10 ]. Many natural products have now been extensively researched, and numerous compounds have exhibited anticancer and other beneficial actions in modern controlled studies.
Most anticancerous natural products interfere with the initiation, development, and progression of cancer by modulating various mechanisms including cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis [ 11 ]. Extracts from Annona muricata also known as graviola are among a myriad of botanical products which have shown promising medicinal value [ 12 — 14 ].
Studies have linked A. Moreover, all aerial parts of this plant, including the bark, fruit, leaves, root, and seeds, are used as natural medicines in the tropics [ 39 ]. However, there is a need for more rigorous studies to establish safe and effective care regimes.
This review summarizes the recent advances in the application and mechanisms of A. Annona muricata is a lowland tropical, fruit-bearing tree of the family Annonaceae found in the rainforests of Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia.
Soft, curved spines cover the leathery skin of the fruits, each of which may contain 55— black seeds distributed in a creamy white flesh with a characteristic aroma and flavor [ 41 , 42 ].
Reports in the literature indicate that seventy-four of these bioactive compounds exhibit a variety of anticancer effects in preclinical cell culture and animal model systems. Several dozen annonaceous acetogenins have been studied 59 of which are listed alphabetically in Table 2 , with key structural features summarized in Figure 2. Moreover, at least ten solvent extracts Table 1 in addition to an extract from fungi Periconia sp.
In developing tropical countries including Africa, different parts of A. Furthermore, in both Jamaica [ 59 ] and Trinidad [ 60 ], A. For example, in Jamaica, a large proportion of cancer patients use medicinal plants in self-medicating practices, with A. In addition, it has been mentioned as an antimicrobial [ 66 ], antidiabetic [ 54 ], anti-inflammatory [ 67 ], antiprotozoan [ 68 ], antioxidant, insecticide [ 69 ], larvicide [ 70 ], and anticancer [ 71 ]. Although these uses of A.
The aerial parts of graviola have been extensively studied with several reported in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities, and have been shown to be effective in the management of several cancer types. The detailed molecular mechanisms of action of various graviola organs against various cancers are summarized in tabular format Table 3 and Figure 3.
Journal overview. Special Issues. Islam Rady, 1 Melissa B. Bloch, 2 Roxane-Cherille N. Noubissi, 4,9 Khalid A. El Sayed, 2 G. Academic Editor: Italo Tempera.
Received 15 Feb Accepted 03 Jun Published 30 Jul Abstract Graviola Annona muricata is a small deciduous tropical evergreen fruit tree, belonging to the Annonaceae family, and is widely grown and distributed in tropical and subtropical regions around the world.
Introduction Cancer is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide. Table 1. Different solvent extracts of A. Figure 1. Chemical structure of compounds derived from fungal strain extracts and the cancers sensitive to them. Table 2. AGEs of A. Structures were drawn using ChemDraw, Arial, point Figure 2. Chemical structures of two AGE combinations along with their targeted cancer phenotype. Hepatic Hep G2 and Hep 2,2,15 cancer [ 80 ]. Hepatic Hep G2 and Hep 2,2,15 cancer [ 81 ].
Hepatic Hep G2 and Hep 2,2,15 cancer [ 82 ]. Hepatic Hep G2 and Hep 2,2,15 cancer [ 88 ]. Significant cytotoxic activity [ 15 ]. Cytotoxic activity [ 17 , 50 ]. Doses: 1. Significantly reduced cell proliferation in cancer cells [ 31 ]. Inhibited the growth of cancer cells [ 23 ].
Her metastatic breast cancer is still stable after 5 years on graviola and Xeloda after previously progressing on multiple lines of therapy [ ]. Induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. Cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro and within reduction of time reaction in vivo [ 96 ]. Antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells [ 29 ]. Antiproliferative activities against human prostate cancer cells [ 30 ].
Reduced prostate size in vivo , possibly through apoptosis [ 21 ]. Induced toxicity against cancer cells [ 16 , 25 ]. Also induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at both the mRNA and protein level [ 25 ].
Significantly reduced cell proliferation in cancer cells [ 26 ]. Induced significant cytotoxic effects, cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, and apoptosis. Treatment also caused excessive accumulation of ROS followed by disruption of MMP, cytochrome c leakage, and activation of the initiator and executioner caspases in cancer cells. In addition, it upregulated Bax and downregulated Bcl-2 proteins. Furthermore, treatment conspicuously blocked the migration and invasion of cancer cells [ 26 ].
In rats treated with azoxymethane to induce colorectal carcinogenesis. This extract reduced colonic aberrant crypt foci formation by Significantly reduced the cell proliferation in cancer cells [ 26 ]. In cancer cells, induced significant cytotoxic effects, cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, and apoptosis as well as excessive accumulation of ROS followed by disruption of MMP, cytochrome c leakage, and activation of the initiator and executioner caspases. It also upregulated Bax and downregulated Bcl-2 protein.
Showed potent anticancer activity through apoptosis and reduction of aberrant crypt foci formation [ 20 ]. In a rat model of Cycas -induced colorectal carcinogenesis, protected against some early events as monitored by histology and protein expression [ ]. Doses in vitro : , , , 50, 25, Enhanced proapoptotic caspase-3 marker activity [ ]. Ex vivo and clinical studies showed higher cytotoxicity in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group [ 94 ].
Ethanol soluble fraction leaf water extract contains 0. Selective cytotoxic effect against cancer cells and significant lactate dehydrogenase leakage and phosphatidylserine externalization demonstrated by fluorescence analysis. This was accompanied by cytochrome c release to the cytosol, which triggered activation of caspase-9 and caspase Antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities towards cancer cells [ ]. Doses in vitro : 0. Dose in vivo : 0. Showed cytotoxicity in vitro [ 19 ] and in vivo [ 96 ].
This was accompanied in vitro by significantly increased caspase-3 activity.
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The incidence of cancer is increasing each year, which generates concerns regarding the efficacy of the current treatment options. This has caused patients to seek alternatives to complement or to replace surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Annona muricata and other plants have been shown to have promising compounds that can be utilised in the treatment of cancer. Native to the tropical and subtropical parts of the world, A. In light of increasing concerns regarding the limitations of cancer treatment in hospitals, this review attempts to highlight the benefits of A.
Anti-cancer effect of Annona Muricata Linn Leaves Crude Extract (AMCE) on breast cancer cell line
Cancer remains a leading cause of death in the USA and around the world. Although the current synthetic inhibitors used in targeted therapies have improved patient prognosis, toxicity and development of resistance to these agents remain a challenge. Plant-derived natural products and their derivatives have historically been used to treat various diseases, including cancer. Several leading chemotherapeutic agents are directly or indirectly based on botanical natural products. Beyond these important drugs, however, a number of crude herbal or botanical preparations have also shown promising utility for cancer and other disorders. One such natural resource is derived from certain plants of the family Annonaceae, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions.
Metrics details. Annona muricata Linn which comes from Annonaceae family possesses many therapeutic benefits as reported in previous studies and to no surprise, it has been used in many cultures to treat various ailments including headaches, insomnia, and rheumatism to even treating cancer. However, Annona muricata Linn obtained from different cultivation area does not necessarily offer the same therapeutic effects towards breast cancer in regards to its bioactive compound production. In this study, anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects of Annona muricata crude extract AMCE on breast cancer cell lines were evaluated. Then, the in vivo anti-cancer study was conducted where mice were fed with extract after inducing the tumor.
Providing cutting-edge scholarly communications to worldwide, enabling them to utilize available resources effectively. We aim to bring about a change in modern scholarly communications through the effective use of editorial and publishing polices. Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, soursop or guanabana is an evergreen tree native to the tropics. Its roots, bark, seed, leaves and pulp have been used in traditional African and South American pharmacopeias to treat a variety of diseases such as arthritis, parasitic infection, hypertension, fever or diabetes.