Jump to navigation. Description Tree to 50 m; bole to cm diam. Bark smooth, pinkish grey or pinkish brown, in large trees becoming longitudinally fissured and scaling, the flakes oblong, greyish, breaking off at upper end and curling up from both ends before shedding, the bole appearing pale brownish or greyish buff and shaggy, sapwood white; heartwood light red. Petals 5—6. Staminal tube c. Seed smelling of garlic when damaged.

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Site characteristics and foliar nutrients of Azadirachta excelsa plantations in relation to growth were studied in Peninsular Malaysia.

Slope, in association with soil depth had the greatest influence on the stand growth. Concentrations of N, P, K and Mg in the foliage were sufficient for tree growth.

Calcium foliar concentration was been found to be deficient. Foliar concentration of N and K were positively correlated with soil nutrient concentration. Proper site selection and fertilizer applications are important factors to be considered when establishing A. In , Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia launched Forest Plantation Compensatory Project to cover , ha by the year with year rotation. However, Peninsular Malaysia already started to experience timber shortage in early 's Ismail and Shaharuddin projected that Peninsular Malaysia would still face wood shortage for a number years to come even when wood from existing plantation including Hevea brasiliensis were considered.

Establishing forest plantation is one of the solutions for this crisis. Many countries e. Chile and New Zealand have already turned to forest plantations for timber production. In the mid 's the Malaysian government began promoting several tree species for forest plantations, one of which is Azadirachta excelsa. Azadirachta excelsa Meliaceae is indigenous to the country and has a number of uses including for furniture and home construction due to its high quality timber and wood colour Anon Additionally, its young shoots are edible and are used as vegetables Corner Ermel et al.

However, there is relatively little information on A. However, the species was reported to perform poorly on N and P deficient soils Ong , under shade Sofia , water stress Jerry and on compacted soils Jusnani Information on growth under different management regime and establishment methods and different sites are needed for A.

In , it was estimated that more than 5, ha of A. However, the potential impact caused by different site management practices on yield and over successive rotations is unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine how the growth of A. This information is essential for tree management and fertilizer prescriptions for A.

The experiment was conducted in the state of Terengganu and Johore, Malaysia Figure 1. The altitudes of the sites are below 30 m whilst the soils are sandy clay loam. Both plantations were about two years old when the measurement was carried out. The plantation in Terengganu is located about 10 km south of Sungai Tong town 5 o 21'N and o 53'E. The average annual temperature varies from The plantation was established following clear cutting of first rotation mature old palm stand in July The trees were planted at a spacing of 2.

Fertilizer g per tree with 15 N P K was applied in April Weeds were manually removed annually during the two years of this study. The plantation in Johore is located about 9 km south of Labis town 2 o 21'N and o 02'E. The plantation was established following clear cutting of two rotations of rubber in March Seedlings were fertilized at the time of planting with 50 g of 15 N P K.

Operational schedules for application of fertilizers are presented in Table 1. Weeds were cleared by herbicide application each time before fertilization, leaving no ground cover for most of the time. Thinning of small trees was carried out in December In both stands, six representative plots of 0. The measurement was carried out in November in Sungai Tong plantation and in June in Sungai Karas plantation.

The volume calculation formula was obtained from 42 harvested trees Ong, unpublished data. Sampling was only carried out in the Sungai Karas plantation. Five soil samples were collected at random from the upper 10 cm soil layer from each plot. The samples were air-dried and sieved with 2 mm screen before analysis. Particle-size analysis was determined using the pipette method. The total organic C was determined by using the Walkley and Black method while total N was determined by a Kjeldahl digest Forster Foliar sampling was carried out in August Ten trees from each plot were randomly selected for foliar nutrient analysis.

Two small branches on upper canopy of each tree were collected. Mature leaves were bulked to give a composite sample. The sample were oven-dried 70 o C for 48 h, ground and digested with sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide wet digestion method. Nitrogen and P were determined by the similar colorimetric method used for soil. Potassium, Mg and Ca in the digest were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Differences between trees from the different locations were tested for significance using t-test.

Correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship among soil properties, foliar nutrients and tree growth. Growth data of two-year-old trees in the Sungai Tong and Sungai Karas plantations are shown in Table 2.

The trees in the Sungai Karas stand were significantly bigger and taller that those in the Sungai Tong stand. The differences may due to different site preparation, management practices and climate. The increments in growth parameters were similar to those reported by Zulkifli and Yahaya for a trial at Relai Forest Reserve, Kelantan.

At 38 months, A. In a years-old plantation at Bukit Lagong Forest Reserve, Selangor, which was once left unmanaged for a few years, Ahmad Zuhaidi and Weinland reported a mean height of Table 2: Characteristics of the two-year old Azadirachta excelsa stands.

The soil in Sungai Karas is a sandy clay loam and low in pH Table 3. Based on a fertility rating by Kanapathy the site is low in exchangeable K and Mg and moderate in organic C, N and P, indicating the current rate of application of fertilizer may still be insufficient to increase the soil fertility. This may be due to the very low existing soil fertility before planting or a high rate of loss through leaching, erosion or tree uptake. Use of fertilizers in the area under the previous crop Adams, and the high rainfall could have resulted in the low pH.

Low soil pH is often associated with high concentration of exchangeable Al. Liming or ashing maybe needed to increase the soil pH and so lower the concentration of exchangeable Al which maybe toxic to plants. Table 3: Growth, soil properties and foliar nutrient concentrations of the two-year old Azadirachta excelsa at the Sungai Karas plantation.

Except for Ca, other foliar nutrient concentrations Table 3 were in the range previously reported by Ong et al. Calcium concentration in the foliage was less than 3. Concentrations of P, Mg and K which was higher for the latter element were at the maximum level as compared to study by Ong et al.

Studies have shown that the presence of Al in the soil solution increased tree uptake of K and reduced Ca Ryan et al. Relationships among growth parameters, soil properties and foliar nutrient concentrations: correlation analyses.

Table 4 shows the coefficients of correlation between growth parameters and soil properties. The dbh was negatively correlated with slope, silt and K, whereas it was positively correlated with sand, pH and Mg.

On the other hand, foliar concentration of Ca was significantly correlated with all the growth parameters whilst P was positively correlated with height and volume. Table 4: Coefficients of correlation between soil properties, foliar concentrations and growth parameters.

Regression equations relating soil properties and foliar nutrient concentrations to growth parameters were obtained Table 5. Height and volume were influenced by slope, whilst dbh was influenced by N and K. Table 5: Multiple regressions equation relating soil properties and foliar nutrient concentrations to growth a. From the above relationships, it can be seen that the soil characteristics that best explain the differences in growth are slope for height and volume and K for dbh. When considered together, foliar concentration of Ca for dbh also had some influence on tree growth.

The poor growth could be due to shallow soil on steep slopes which in turn contribute to a restricted volume for root growth and subsequently the lower availability of water and nutrients. Positive relationships between tree growth and soil depth have previously been reported for P. A negative relationship between dbh and K could be an indirect effect.

Higher level of K can reduce the uptake of Ca, which is indicated by the low Ca concentration in the foliage, which subsequently lead to reduce growth of the trees. Growth of two-year-old A. The growth of young A. Azadirachta excelsa should not be planted on steep slope with shallow soils as growth will be restricted.

The level and type of fertilizer applied and the methods of reducing nutrient loss are among the factors that need to be taken into consideration when managing site productivity of A. The authors thank Mr. Phoon Ah Kow, the owner of the plantation for access. We also like to thank Mr. Tey Ah Lim, Dr. Baskaran, Mr. Ong Tai Hock, Mr. Abdul Razak Sulong, Mr.

Zakaria Taha, Mr. Salim Ahmad, Mr.


Azadirachta excelsa

Wise] General Information Sentang is a large deciduous tree, growing up to 50 metres tall. Year ISBN Description An excellent series of leaflets, this one gives information on the wood of several species of light hardwoods. It can be downloaded as a PDF document from the Internet. A multipurpose tree with edible and medicinal uses, as well as a host of other applications such as oil, agroforestry, insecticide and timber.


Search results for: Azadirachta excelsa

Back Flora 2 7 Description and Ethnobotany Growth Form Large tree, able to grow up to about 45 - 50 m tall. Trunk Trunk is usually clear up to 20 m tall, girth size can be up to Foliage Green leaves, alternate arrangement, measuring about 30 - 60 cm long, each leaf has about 7 - 11 pairs of lanceolate to elliptic leaflets measuring about


We'd like to understand how you use our websites in order to improve them. Register your interest. The best-known species of the genus Azadirachta family Meliaceae is A. There are at least two other congeneric species in Southeast Asia, namely, A. To extend our limited knowledge of the marrango tree, investigations were carried out in the Philippines on the island of Palawan, and in Germany.


Azadirachta excelsa , commonly known as sentang , [3] is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae. The specific epithet excelsa is from the Latin meaning "lofty". Its bark is pinkish grey or pinkish brown. The sweetly scented flowers are creamy-white.

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