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From the beginning, the aim of the Journal is to foster academic research by publishing original research articles that meet the highest analytical standards, and provide new insights that contribute and spread the business management knowledge. ERMBE is an international peer-reviewed open access journal. The articles published are related with any specialities in the fields of the Business Economics accounting, business management, finance, human resource management, marketing, operations management, organization theory, strategic management, etc. The target audience is constituted by academics and researchers belonging to any university and by professionals and executives from the business world. CiteScore measures average citations received per document published.

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From the beginning, the aim of the Journal is to foster academic research by publishing original research articles that meet the highest analytical standards, and provide new insights that contribute and spread the business management knowledge. ERMBE is an international peer-reviewed open access journal.

The articles published are related with any specialities in the fields of the Business Economics accounting, business management, finance, human resource management, marketing, operations management, organization theory, strategic management, etc.

The target audience is constituted by academics and researchers belonging to any university and by professionals and executives from the business world. CiteScore measures average citations received per document published. Read more. SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same. SJR uses a similar algorithm as the Google page rank; it provides a quantitative and qualitative measure of the journal's impact.

SNIP measures contextual citation impact by wighting citations based on the total number of citations in a subject field. This paper applies the theory of shopping preference to this field. The information of mobile shoppers is analyzed in two contexts Spain as a developed country and Mexico as a developing country.

A positive attitude toward m-advertising is confirmed to increase m-repurchase through the mobile phone and the indirect influence of personal, social, and epistemic factors on shoppers m-repurchase through the attitude toward m-advertising varies depending on the analyzed market..

The mobile phone is no longer just a communication tool since it has also become a commercial channel of products and services for many companies aware of its potential as a marketing tool.

Thus, smartphones are essential marketing instruments for companies in any country, developed or emerging, given the dramatic growth in mobile phone use ITU, Meanwhile, mobile commerce would involve the purchase of goods through these gadgets. In this sense, it is compulsory to study the determinants of consumer behavior of different nature to better understand the use of mobile phones as a channel of communication and marketing in different markets.

In this perspective, the aim of this paper is twofold. First, it aims to determine the role of personal, social, and epistemic factors i. To do this, we will apply the theory of shopping preference Sheth, to the context of mobile commerce.

Second, it seeks to identify whether there are differences in the generation of a positive attitude toward m-advertising and repeat mobile purchase depending on the country analyzed. Among the most notable contributions of this paper, it should be noted that it is one of the few studies that uses data from real mobile shoppers, and contrasts an innovative theoretical model for two different countries, one emerging and one developed, leading to interesting academic and professional implications for a potentially high growth in the marketing area.

M-repurchase involves multiple benefits for the firms, such as a stable demand, a higher sales volume, cost savings in attracting new customers, and increased value of the portfolio. In an introductory phase of growth of mobile commerce, marketing activities through mobile devices can help firms to promote m-repurchase.

M-advertising lets firms take advantage of the particularities of m-marketing and mobile channels to facilitate the process of mutual and instantaneous communication with mobile shoppers Achadinha et al. Attending Bauer, Barnes, Reichardt, and Neumann , a positive attitude toward m-advertising can be understood as a predisposition to consistently respond favorably toward m-advertising. Several studies suggest that acceptance of m-marketing including m-advertising is a prerequisite for the development of mobile shopping Jayawardhena et al.

In this regard, Gazley, Hunt, and McLaren find evidence that the attitude toward advertising can become a determining variable to reinforce the behavior of consumers in the mobile context. When consumers receive advertising through mobile devices, they evaluate information, and based on that assessment; they can develop an intention to repeat purchase or reject the product or service. Thus, only when the consumer attitude toward m-advertising is positive, they will develop an intention to repeat purchase regarding promoted products by mobile devices Achadinha et al.

H1 Positive attitude toward m-advertising has a positive effect on m-repurchasing. The theory of shopping preference Sheth, , for an offline purchase context, suggests that among the determinants of motivation of buyer behavior personal, social, and epistemic factors should be considered. Personal factors allude to customer's personality traits; social factors refer to the social influence or normative values imposed by others i.

Thus, this study contemplates in the order above the propensity to use technology and perceived control as personal factors, social influence as a social factor and compatibility as an epistemic factor in determining the attitude toward m-advertising and final repurchase by mobile.

Therefore, an individual whose personality leads to innovate in the field of new technologies might respond positively to the knowledge of new technologies, seeking to experiment with them as soon as they become aware of their existence. Thus, consumers characterized by high levels of propensity to use technology tend to make more constructive use of the information received through this media to increase their knowledge about it and also are more likely to receive much more information by mobile Bauer et al.

Therefore, they may have a more positive attitude toward m-advertising. To the best of our knowledge, we have not found any prior work that has tested this relationship, since previous research focuses on the effect of propensity to technology on purchase intention, but not on the attitude toward m-advertising.

H2 The propensity to use technology has a positive effect on attitude toward m-advertising. Previous literature suggests that when an individual perceives they can control the purchase by mobile including the reception of information , their willingness to accept advertising improves Jayawardhena et al. Such as Hoffman, Novak, and Peralta analogously suggest, the feeling of loss of control is one of the main barriers to participation in technological marketing activities.

According to these arguments, we propose that when mobile shoppers perceive that they have the necessary and sufficient skills and resources to control commercial communication through mobile their readiness to receive information and advertising by this media will improve.

H3 Perceived control has a positive effect on attitude toward m-advertising. Social influence is a key to explain consumer behavior related to the use of technology, especially when the use of mobile phones is considered a social activity. In this sense, the user tends to learn or imitate behaviors of their referent agents family, co-workers, or friends for mobile adoption and use Pedersen, This fact would improve their attitude toward the use of mobile devices.

The social influence effect on shopping intention has been confirmed in various contexts, including mobile commerce Song et al. Thus, we propose that the influence of a customer's reference group can generate a positive attitude toward m-advertising. H4 Social influence has a positive effect on attitude toward m-advertising. Following Sheth and Cho and Workman , epistemic factors are related to the assessment of novelty in the purchasing environment.

H5 Compatibility with mobile phone has a positive effect on attitude toward m-advertising. Following Chung and Holdsworth's study, mobile commerce can be considered a global phenomenon due to social interactions through mobile phones around the world, and in this sense, it is reasonable to understand it through a cross-national approach. In this regard, Choi et al. Specifically, Choi et al. In this sense, previous literature proposes that cultural factors may moderate the repurchase via mobile and attitude toward advertising Mortimer et al.

In this sense, an exploratory hypothesis is proposed to determine the moderating role of the country in the proposed prior hypotheses. H6 The country of the mobile shopper Mexico or Spain moderates the relationships proposed in hypotheses H1—H5. Spain and Mexico were chosen as the countries for collecting information to contrast the proposed hypotheses due to their cross-national differences.

The levels of economic, cultural, and technological development are different in these two countries. In contrast, Mexico is a developing country and an emerging market. Some of the most cited studies which help understand the cultural differences between countries Hofstede, ; Hofstede et al.

Primary information was obtained through personal surveys of mobile phone users randomly chosen and selected from the members of a panel in each country who responded affirmatively to the question of whether they had made a purchase by mobile phone.

Encounters in a common public place were agreed to in order to personally apply the questionnaire. A valid sample of mobile shoppers in Spain and mobile shoppers in Mexico were obtained Table 1. Shoppers were asked about the last product or service purchased by mobile phone.

The socio-demographic profile of Spanish and Mexican samples responds to men The measurement scales used were adapted from previous literature to ensure content validity.

Five-point Likert scales were used. Goldsmith and Taylor and Todd's studies were referred to in order to measure the attitude toward m-advertising, and Harris and Goode , and Zeithaml, Berry, and Parasuraman to measure m-repurchase. The propensity to use technology was measured with Goldsmith and Hofacker's scale, and perceived control with Taylor and Todd's scale. In the case of social influence, Nysveen et al.

The items are presented in the Appendix. A confirmatory factor analysis determined the convergent and discriminant validity of the measurement model and yielded the final scales. The results of the adjusted model and the resulting variables are shown in Table 2. The reliability of the final scales is corroborated by the coefficient values of composite reliability and extracted variance greater than 0. Results of the measurement model and the multigroup model.

Also, the metric invariance was corroborated by restricting loadings of factors between countries. Then, following the methodology of structural equations, the multigroup model and the degree of significance of each of the proposed hypothesis were estimated. The goodness of fit indices of the proposed model are acceptable Table 2. Thus the attitude toward m-advertising positively influences m-repurchase by mobile in both markets, but with a slightly lower coefficient in the case of the Spanish market in contrast to the Mexican market.

To sum up, there are significant differences due to the country of the mobile shoppers, which supports hypothesis H6. In line with the theory of shopping preference Sheth, , but pioneering in its application to the study of mobile commerce: our results confirm that regardless of the national context of purchase by mobile, a personal characteristic of the consumer perceived control , the social influence, and an epistemic factor compatibility are determinants of attitude toward m-advertising and, indirectly, of re-purchase.

However, the contribution of this study is even greater if we consider that the effect of the variables considered as determinants of the attitude toward m-advertising and m-repurchase varies depending on the analyzed market. Thus, we could say that the theory of shopping preference is useful in explaining the purchase by mobile in different markets, but more in developing markets than in developed ones, according to our study.

Perhaps in a country, like Mexico, where mobile commerce is in the earliest stages of development, m-shoppers need more motivational elements to display a positive attitude toward m-advertising and m-repurchase than the required motivators in countries with higher rates of penetration and use of mobile technology, such as Spain.

The results of this study indicate that a positive attitude toward m-advertising can increase m-repurchase intentions in Spain and Mexico, in line with the results of previous studies Achadinha et al. Following our proposed model, if a positive attitude toward m-advertising generates an m-repurchase intention in both kinds of markets, the difference is determined by how the propensity to use technology, perceived control, social influence, and compatibility affect the attitude toward m-advertising in each country.

In this sense, it is plausible that the propensity to use technology in an emerging market Mexico influences the attitude toward m-advertising more than it does in a developed country Spain.

In contrast, in a country where the mobile commerce is in more advanced stages due to greater economic and technological development , customers do not need to resort to m-advertising to repeat purchase, as might be the case of Spain. This result can be understood if we keep in mind the still existing digital rift between developing and developed countries, which also determines the use of mobile technology for information and purchase in each country.

A related aspect to a predisposition to adopt and use mobile technology as a shopping channel is the self-perceive ability to use mobile perceived control. In this line, it is interesting to note that perceived control has a negative influence on the attitude toward m-advertising in the case of Mexico.

Thus, in a culture with a greater aversion to uncertainty and a more uncertain institutional framework, as is the case of Mexico, when customers perceived control over mobile technology increases, the need to resort to m-advertising to determine their shopping behavior is reduced and may even develop a negative attitude. By contrast, in a developed country with a more certain institutional framework, as is the case in Spain, dominion over mobile technology makes the user feel more confident to control communication with the company and therefore improves their attitude toward advertising through mobile.

Our results agree with the study of Muk and Chung , which suggests that consumers in developed countries tend to rely more on their previous personal experiences to assess the consequences of receiving advertising based on their behavior than consumers in developing countries.

Social influence is key to displaying a positive attitude toward m-advertising that goes beyond national context. Other studies have already highlighted the important role it plays in the attitude and behaviors related to the use of technology Chang et al. However, it is interesting to note that the social group has a greater influence on attitude toward m-advertising in Mexico than in Spain. Given the cultural differences between the analyzed countries.

It is arguable that in a country with greater inter-group collectivism, such as Mexico, the influence of the social environment can make customers integrated into a group that regularly use mobile technology have a better attitude toward mobile communication than in a more individualistic country, such as Spain, because of the closeness in the existing personal relationships in collectivist countries.

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From October , the evaluation of publications will be carried out quarterly. To update the information published in DICE, the last published issue of each journal received is examined. However, there are two indicators which require the review of the last three issues: openness to external authors and internationality of the contributions. For new journals, the evaluation is not carried out until three issues have been published. With regards to journals which have been published for some time but are not included in DICE, publishers will be requested to send the last three issues to carry out the first evaluation. The criteria included in the previous version of DICE can be consulted here. Spanish English.

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From the beginning, the aim of the Journal is to foster academic research by publishing original research articles that meet the highest analytical standards, and provide new insights that contribute and spread the business management knowledge. ERMBE is an international peer-reviewed open access journal. The articles published are related with any specialities in the fields of the Business Economics accounting, business management, finance, human resource management, marketing, operations management, organization theory, strategic management, etc. The target audience is constituted by academics and researchers belonging to any university and by professionals and executives from the business world. CiteScore measures average citations received per document published. Read more. SRJ is a prestige metric based on the idea that not all citations are the same.

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It is edited uninterruptedly since by Comunicar Group, Andalucian Collective and was one of the first Spanish journals of the area in being indexed in the database Journal Citation Reports of Web of Science and Scopus. It has International Scientific Boards researchers and scientific reviewers, formed by more than experts from 45 countries. It is full edited en spanish, english and abstracts in chinese. Summary indexing information: Journal Citation Reports Q1. SNIP: 2. Impact Factor 2.

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This project, developed by AGAUR at the proposal of the General Directorate for Research, is presented in order to contribute to the evaluation of the research carried out in the Catalan scientific and university system with the highest objectivity. ERIH Lists. European Reference Index for the Humanities classification of European journals in the fields of social sciences and humanities prepared by the European Science Foundation. From this source of information includes a selection of all journals that have an ICDS greater than 3. Research groups recognized by the Generalitat of Catalonia in in the fields of social sciences and humanities: from this source of information a selection of the journals where these groups had been published between and was included. Only those that are clearly from areas of knowledge external to the social sciences and the humanities have been excluded.

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