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Kellogg Company early in It made available for the first time an adequately organized, comprehensive analytical method for evaluating the stresses, reactions, and deflections in an irregular piping system in space, unlimited as to the character, location, or number of concentrated loadings or restraints. It was the culmination of an intensive, widespread effort to meet the recognized need for refined analysis capable of general application to the increasing number of critical piping services required by technological progress, and to the increasingly severe problems which they posed.

The timely availability of this reliable and versatile approach, now widely known as the Kellogg General Analytical Method, made it possible to provide satisfactory design for the avalanche of critical and pioneering piping requirements associated with World War II plant design, and proved to be a major step in accelerating acquaintance with accurate thermal expansion analysis and appreciation of its potentialities for more extensive application.

Since the war, technological progress and the trend to larger scale, more complex units has continued unabated, while the attendant increased pressures, temperatures, and structural complexities have resulted in larger pipe sizes, heavier wall thicknesses, and a marked increase in alloy construction.

Concurrently, the wartime-fostered universal acceptance of adequate piping flexibility analysis for critical service has paved the way for more searching examination of the over-all economics of erected piping by relating potential fabrication, materials, and operating savings to increased engineering costs. Earlier concepts, which regarded piping as trivial and expendable, are fast disappearing in view of the rising costs of field corrections and loss of plant operation - and also with the recognition that piping represents an increasing percentage of initial plant expenditure.

The importance of sound piping design is now well recognized not only by designers and users, but also by authorities concerned with public safety. Significant improvements in the rules have already resulted in the revised minimum and now mandatory requirements for piping flexibility. With this trend, the ASA Code is now rapidly assuming the status of a mandatory Safety Code, whereas previously it had served designers and users primarily as a recommended design practice guide.

The critical shortage of engineering personnel during World War II prevented the completion of sections on other aspects of piping design that had been planned for inclusion in the original edition of Design of Piping Systems.

As the shortage persisted, considerable time elapsed before resumption of work could be considered. Meanwhile, many requests for extension and suggestions for improvement were vi PREFACE received from readers of the text already published. It is the objective of this Second Edition to supplement Code rules and other readily available information with specific mechanical design approaches for entire piping systems as well as their individual components and to provide background information which will engender understanding, competent application of analytical results, and the exercise of good judgment in handling the many special situations which must be faced on critical piping.

In line with this objective, the opening chapter presents a condensed treatise on the physics of materials. It is followed by a comprehensive study of the capacity of piping to carry various prescribed loadings. The utilization of materials is then considered, not only in relation to fundamental knowledge but also on the basis of conventionally accepted practices. The present edition also includes a greatly augmented treatment of local flexibility and stress intensification, and a chapter on simplified methods of flexibility analysis contains several newly developed approaches which should prove helpful for general assessment of average piping, or in the planning stage of the design of critical piping.

The Kellogg General Analytical Method, now extended to include all forms of loading, has been improved in presentation by the use of numerous sample calculations to illustrate application procedures, and by placing the derivations of the formulas in an appendix. Included in this edition are chapters on expansion joints and on pipe supports that offer, it is believed, the first broad treatment of these items with regard to critical piping.

The rising significance of vibration, both structural and fluid, is recognized in the final chapter, which was also prepared especially for this edition. For ready accessibility of information, the charts and tables most frequently needed for reference have been grouped at the end of the text, and a detailed subject index has been provided. THE M. Kellogg Company became a subsidiary of Pullman Incorporated in , and in was re-named Pullman Kellogg. Kellogg Company in the field of piping design.

It reflects the numerous achievements and contributions of the Company to effective piping design for high temperature and pressure service. McKee is Sales Manager. This work could be brought to realization only through the cooperation of the entire engineering staff of the Company and, in particular, of the Piping Division.

Certain individual contributions deserve specific acknowledgment. Wallstrom provided the major original contributions to the Kellogg General Analytical Method and its extensions Chapter 5 and Appendix A.

He was ably assisted in this work by Mrs. Catherine R. Professor E. Kellogg Company, is responsible for the contents of Chapter 1. Murphy and N. Weil collaborated in composing Chapters 2 and 3 and assisted in the preparation of Chapters 1 and 7. Chapter 4 is the result of a cooperative effort between H. WaUstrom and N. Weil; L. Andrews is credited with the writing of Chapter 6. Credit for the most significant contributions to Chapters 7 and 8 is due to E.

Yachter, assisted by S. Meerbaum, prepared Chapter 9 and Appendix B. In addition to credits for Chapters, the following special contributions are acknowledged.

Rush and M. Morrison contributed to the general phases of piping design. Valuable suggestions were supplied by M. Schar on Chapter 8 and by S. Chesler on Chapter 9. Credit is due to J.

McKeon for his notable comments and assistance in reviewing and proof-reading this volume. Mylander is to be commended for co-ordinating portions of this work. The task of assembling and editing the Second Edition was carried out by E. Weil performed the review and inserted corrections for the second printing of this Edition. The entire project has been under the direction of D.

Rossheim, who has guided the design principles and philosophies embodied in this work. As is the case with most advances in the engineering art, the First Edition and this significantly extended Second Edition of Design of Piping Systems have greatly benefited from the research and contributions of other investigators.

Their many valuable contributions are covered in the lists of references at the ends of the various chapters and in the "Historical Review of Bibliography" of Appendix A. Rossheim's ability, dedicat. Nomenclature xiii Chapter 1 Strength and Failure of Materials 1. Plastic Deformation under Uniaxial Stress, 2; B. Triaxial Stress: Yield Conditions, 3; C.

Plastic Stress-strain Relationships for Tri- axial Stress, 4. Ultimate Stress and Working Stress, 7. Transient Creep, 9; C. Viscous Creep, 10; D. Creep under Triaxial Stress, 11; E. The Mechanism of Creep, 11; F. Creep Fracture, General Features, 20; B. The Mechanism of Fatigue, 22; C. Influence of a Superposed Steady Stress, 23; D. Influence of a Compound State of Stress, 25; E. Influence of Notches and of Surface Flaws, 25; F. Periodically Varying Thermal Stresses, 26; H.

Thermal Fatigue, 27; J. Damage by Overstress, 27; K. Corrosion Fatigue, Internal Pressure up to psi Maximum, 43; b. Internal Pressure over psi, 44; c. External Pressures, 46; d. Expansion, 47; c. Other Loading, H Skewed Members 5. Discussion, ; b. Bellows Details, ; c. Support and Protection of Bellows ; d. Fabrication of Bellows Joints, ; c.

Establishing Purchasing Requirernenta for Bellows Joints, ; f. Materials and Deterioration, ; I. Fatigue Basis for Predicting Bellows Life, ; h. Testing and Quality Control of Bellows Joints, Definitions, ; b. Types of Vibration, ; c. Sources of Periodic Excitation, ; d.

Vibration Prevention and Control, The Spring-Mass Model, ; b. Variable Stiffness and Variable Mass, ; d. Combined BendingTorsion, ; e.


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