The text comprises a sectional portrait of the original Epic of Gilgamesh in three parts. The premiere of the oratorio took place on 24 January with the Basel Chamber Orchestra and the Basel Chamber Choir conducted by Paul Sacher ,  and it received further performances in Martinu's lifetime, including one in Vienna where Marilyn Horne was one of the soloists. Vernon Handley conducted the work in Guildford in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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In the year the University Museum secured by purchase a large six column tablet nearly complete, carrying originally, according to the scribal note, lines of text. The tablet is said to have been found at Senkere, ancient Larsa near Warka, modern Arabic name for and vulgar descendant of the ancient name Uruk, the Biblical Erech mentioned in Genesis X.
This fact makes the new text the more interesting since the legend of Gilgamish is said to have originated at Erech and the hero in fact figures as one of the prehistoric Sumerian rulers of that ancient city. The dynastic list preserved on a Nippur tablet 1 mentions him as the fifth king of a legendary line of rulers at Erech, who succeeded the dynasty of Kish, a city in North Babylonia near the more famous but more recent city Babylon.
The list at Erech contains the names of two well known Sumerian deities, Lugalbanda 2 and Tammuz. The reign of the former is given at 1, years and that of Tammuz at years. Gilgamish ruled years. We have to do here with a confusion of myth and history in which the real facts are disengaged only by conjecture.
The prehistoric Sumerian dynasties were all transformed [ ] into the realm of myth and legend. Nevertheless these rulers, although appearing in the pretentious nomenclature as gods, appear to have been real historic personages.
A fragment of the South Babylonian version of the tenth book was published in , a text from the period of Hammurapi, which showed that the Babylonian epic differed very much from the Assyrian in diction, but not in content. The new tablet, which belongs to the same period, also differs radically from the diction of the Ninevite text in the few lines where they duplicate each other. The first line of the new tablet corresponds to Tablet I, Col.
V 25 of the Assyrian text, 7 where Gilgamish begins to relate his dreams to his mother Ninsun. The last line of Col. I corresponds to the Assyrian version Book I, Col. VI From this point onward the new tablet takes up a hitherto unknown portion of the epic, henceforth to be assigned to the second book.
At the end of Book I in the Assyrian text and at the end of Col. I of Book II in the new text, the situation in the legend is as follows. The harlot halts outside the city of Erech with the enamoured Enkidu, while she relates to him the two dreams of the king, Gilgamish. In these dreams which he has told to his mother he receives premonition concerning the advent of the satyr Enkidu, destined to join with him in the conquest of Elam.
Now the harlot urges Enkidu to enter the beautiful city, to clothe himself like other men and to learn the ways of civilization.
When he enters he sees someone, whose name is broken away, eating bread and drinking milk, but the beautiful barbarian understands not. The harlot commands him to eat and drink also:. Of the conditions and fate of the Land. He rapidly learns the customs of men, becomes a shepherd and a mighty hunter. At last he comes to the notice of Gilgamish himself, who is shocked by the newly acquired manner of Enkidu. Once again the faithful woman instructs her heroic lover in the conventions of society, this time teaching him the importance of the family in Babylonian life, and obedience to the ruler.
Now the people of Erech assemble about him admiring his [ ] godlike appearance. Gilgamish receives him and they dedicate their arms to heroic endeavor. A terrific combat between these heroes ensues, 10 in which Enkidu conquers, and in a magnanimous speech he reminds Gilgamish of his higher destiny. In another unplaced fragment of the Assyrian text 11 Enkidu rejects his mistress also, apparently on his own initiative and for ascetic reasons.
This fragment, heretofore assigned to the second book, probably belongs to Book III. The tablet of the Assyrian version which carries the portion related on the new tablet has not been found. Man redeemed from barbarism is the major theme of Book II. The newly recovered section of the epic contains two legends which supplied the glyptic artists of Sumer and Accad with subjects for seals. Obverse III 28—32 describes Enkidu the slayer of lions and panthers. Seals in all periods frequently represent Enkidu in combat with a lion.
Poebel in PBS. V, No. Here he is the consort of the mother goddess Ninsun. Dumu-zi I take to have been originally the name of a prehistoric ruler of Erech, identified with the primitive deity Abu. But Dr. Poebel, who also copied this text, has shown that Nin-lil is an erroneous reading for Nin-sun.
About five lines broken away. The earlier texts have only the one or the other. The standard Assyrian texts regard Enkidu as the subject.
The previous translations of this passage are erroneous. I Col. IV Dhorme Choix de Textes Religieux , II page 1 and index. The word is probably an adverb; hardly a word for cup, mug?? One expects ittabriru. Text and interpretation uncertain. V 55; etc. See also Brockelman, Vergleichende Grammatik a.
If this interpretation be correct the preterite edir is established. My reading is uncertain. The meaning of the idiom is uncertain. IV , 1. I beheld] my likeness in the street. I will lead thee. The trencher-basket put upon thy head. See also No. In Ni. Aruru, goddess. Lamentation to, Sister of Enlil, , 2; , 29; , Other references, , ; , 34 f. Enkidu, satyr, , ; , 6; , ; , 13; , ; , 11; , 16; , Enlil, god. Liturgy to, — Regarded as god of light, , 1 ff.
Other references, , 19; , 2; , 19; , 6; , 5; , 40; , 22; , ; , ; , Gilgamish, king of Erech, ; , f. Derivation of name, II 15; , 42; f. Innini, goddess, Liturgy to, ; , Consort of Shamash, , 4. Other references, , Kish, city, , 30; , Nangt, goddess, , 7. Ur, city, , 21; , 6. Lamentation for, Other references, No. Dark brown unbaked tablet. Three columns. Lower edge slightly broken. Knobs at left upper and left lower corners to facilitate the holding of the tablet.
Second tablet of the Epic of Gilgamish. I will lead thee 15 into the midst of Erech of the wide places, 16 even unto the holy house, dwelling place of Anu. Second tablet. Written upon Index to Parts 2 and 3 A.
Adab, city, , Aja, goddess, , 9.
Epos o Gilgamešovi
Epos o Gilgamešovi