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Embed Size px x x x x Introduction 3. This lecture focused on human information processing that includes: 1. Human Information ProcessingPerceiving Memorising Processing Human are limited to their capacity to process information.
This has important implication for design 4. Human Perceptor 5. Information is received via a number of human sensory channel: 1. Visual channel2. Auditory channel3. MovementX 6. Visual Channel We see windows, buttons, numbers, alphabets, lights colours, menus, icons in our computer machine We design our computer system by adapting the way the eye perceive brightness, colour, size, depth and relative distance 7.
Colour Brigthness is subjective reaction to level of lights Brighness perception is subject to luminance the amount of light emiited by an object colour component: hue wavelength of light , intensity brightness , saturation amount of whiteness Cones photoreceptors has three type that each is sensitive to different colour blu, green, red 8.
Reading process stages: 1. Perceiving visual pattern on the word on the page 2. Decoding the pattern with reference to an internal representation of language 3. Syntatic and semantic analysing and operate on phrases or sentenceReading During reading, eyes do saccades followed by fixations, also regressions move backwards and forwards over text Words are not recognised character by character, but by word shape Experiment suggest standard font size for legible reading is 9 to 12 points Negative contrast dark character on a light screen provides higher luminance, therefor increase acuity 9.
Design ExampleWhat can we learn and use from visual perception to our computer design??? Sound non-speech is used as an addition to visual computercommunication1. Auditory ChannelAttention2. Status information3. Navigation Sound is also used for visual impaired communcation aid Touch screen is explored because people dislike to be troubled with mouse and its more way cool isnt it?
Vibration, give feedback information, alert when user dont want to use visual and sound Haptic application in computer gaming3. Haptic Channel Now we seek a technology that allow user to feel surface texture and shape such for e-commerce application Movement To direct the input Human Memory Information is stored in memory 1.
Sensory memory2. Short-term working memory3. Long-term memory There are 3 sensory memory: 1. Sensory memoryIconic memory for visual stimuli2. Echoic memory for aural stimuli3. Haptic memory for touch stimuli Its constantly overwritten by new information coming Example: moving fingers in front of eyes, seeing firework Working as scratch-pad for temporary recall Example: during multiplication like in 35x On receiving the money the customer would reach closure and hence often forget to take the card.
Modern ATMs return the card first! Long-term Memory Its our main memory, here we store factual information, experimental knowledge, procedural rules of behaviour, everything we know 2 type of long-term memory: 1. Episodic memory for events and experience 2. Semantic memory for facts, concept and acquired skill Imagine we have to memorise all important number and code, such: postal code, phone number, passwordSecurity: arch enemy of memory Now it has to be alphanumerical plus symbol Now it has to be more than 6 numbers The worst of all: we have to keep them secret, in mind.
It cant be written! Network engineers suggest us what they called a solution for this: nonsense password but still meaningfull to user eg. Initial of names, number of significant dates Human Think Reasoning and Problem Solving Information is prosessed and applied: Reasoning Problem solving Skill acquisition error Reasoning is a means of inferring new information from what is already known 1.
ReasoningInductive: generalising from case we have seen to infer information about cases we have not seen Example: we have seen several elephant have trunks, we conclude that all elephant have trunks Its unreliable, but usefull for constanlty learning new environment3. Abductive: it reason from a fact to the action or state that caused it Problem in interactive system: if an event always follow an action, the user will infere that the event is caused by the action Problem solving is process of finding solution to an unfamiliar task, using the knowledge we have3.
Problem Solving There are 3 main theory how human solve problem 1. Gestalt theory: problem solving is a matter of reproducing known response or trial and error Problem soace theory: problem has initial state and a goal state and people use the operator from the former to later Analogy in problem solving: people use current knowledge as an analogy to solve novel problem Three basic level of skills Skill Acquisition1. The real uses general-purpose rules which interpret facts about a problem.
This is slow and demanding on memory access The learner develops rules spesific to the task The rules are tuned to speed up performance Imagine you are learning to cook. Initially, you may have general rule to tell you how long a dish needs to be in the ovenExample of skill acquisition Gradually your knowledge becomes proceduralized and you have specific rules for each caseproceduralization Finally, you may generalize from these rules to produce generalpurpose rulesGeneralization Some error are trivial, some maybe serious and requiring subtansial effort to correct3.
Error If a pattern of behaviour has become automatic and we change some aspect of it, the familiar pattern may break throught and becomes error Others is from incorrect understanding mental models The mental models might be a partia incorrect understanding, or internally inconsistent Human Emotion Emotion influences human capabilities It suggest that in situation of stress, people will be less able to cope with complek problem solving or managing difficult interface.
Individual Difference Users share common capabilities but are individuals with differences, which should not be ignored Difference including sex, physical capabilities and intellectual capabilities. Home Education Hci human. Post on Jun 71 views. Category: Education 0 download. Human Hurriyatul Fitriyah [hfitriyah ub.
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Alan Dix has 15 books on Goodreads with ratings. Interazione uomo-macchina by. Alan Dix. Interazione uomo macchina Alan Dix.
Abowd, Russell Beale. These are often partial, unstable and subject to change. They may be internally inconsistent. They may be superstitious and based on incorrect interpretation of evidence. They are important,. One way of minimising problems is supporting conventions - another is to make the.