The Plagues are the ten catastrophes imposed on ancient Egypt by Yahweh to convince Pharaoh to let the Israelite slaves go as recorded in the Torah Exodus, chapters 7— The Plagues of Egypt imposed on ancient Egypt by Yahweh to convince Pharaoh to let the Israelite slaves go… are they fact or fiction? It describes the affliction of Egypt by natural disasters and by a state of chaos in which the poor have become rich, and the rich poor, with violence, famine and death are everywhere. A symptom of this chaos is the lament that servants are leaving their servitude and acting rebelliously.
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Neither the beginning nor end of this work was preserved, leaving historians with difficulty in interpreting the material and reaching a final conclusion about the events it describes. Written in a single papyrus, the Admonitions of Ipuwer, catalogue name Papyrus Leiden is a poetic composition believed to have been written during the Egyptian Middle Kingdom era, a period corresponding to BC - BC.
The origin of acquisition regarding this document is obscure. It was in possession of the Greek diplomat and merchant Yianni Anastasiou who claimed that the papyrus was discovered at Memphis, in the Saqqara region. The papyrus is fully inscribed from beginning to end on both sides. It consists of 17 complete and incomplete columns of writing. The back of the papyrus contains hymns to the god Amun but it suffered substantially more damage, causing a larger detrimental effect on its preservation and, therefore, loosing much of its written content.
Depiction of Amun in a relief at Karnak Public Domain. The Ipuwer papyrus is famous among Egyptologists, who have known about its existence for a long time, but many were discouraged to engage in further studies of this document due to its complicated language, damaged conditions, and many missing pieces which were crucial to its complete comprehension. Although this papyrus was brought out of its hidden place in , it was not until that Alan Gardiner challenged the document and began studying its content.
The nature of the message in the Ipuwer papyrus depicts violence and chaos in Egypt. According to Dr. Lange, evidence does validate the idea that the Ipuwer papyrus was written during the Middle Kingdom, as the language style and vocabulary corresponds to those used during that era. Lange says that there are indications that the manuscript was copied from an older version, perhaps dating from the beginning of the 18th Dynasty circa BC to BC.
There are unfilled spaces which probably illustrates that it was missing or illegible in the original copied document. Many scholars support the theory proposed by Dr. Lange, who believes the Ipuwer papyrus contains prophetic utterances of an Egyptian seer, as Alan Gardiner relates:. These speeches, in the opinion of Dr. Lange, are prophetic in character; an era of disasters is predicted for Egypt, and is even now, as one passage declares, at hand; and it is the king himself who is responsible for the calamities the bitterness of which he is soon to taste in full measure.
Lange, who maintains that it lacks prophetic evidence in its text. On the other hand, a controversial, yet intriguing, interpretation of this text was proposed by Dr. Immanuel Velikovsky who brought up a theory that the Ipuwer papyrus is a source of evidence for the events of the Exodus, from the Old Testament.
Blood is everywhere…The river is blood…Gates, columns and walls are consumed by fire…. Literary analyses would put the original, of which the Leiden papyrus is a copy, at some time during the Egyptian Middle Kingdom and the very beginning of the turbulent Hyksos period. The two periods in which this might be possible are the dark age that separated the sixth from the eleventh dynasty, and the other is the Hyksos period.
Gardiner inclines towards the theory of the invasion of Hyksos to explain the events in which this papyrus alludes.
Although the Ipuwer papyrus has unquestionable historical background, it could be a mistake to assume that its composition was contemporary with the events to which they suggest. Whether this document relates to prophetic messages, describes the events of the Exodus, or it is simply a text containing mixtures of historical and fictional elements it remains a mystery that historians might never be able to answer.
Top image: Ipuwer Papyrus. Photo Source: Public Domain. Marina has an undergraduate degree in Anthropology, focused on ancient human evolution and archaeology. She did a post graduate year of studies in Renaissance History and discovered, among many things, that her passion belongs to the ancient world.
I would say that there is a possibility. Whenever anyone translates from one language to another there are always problems i. The Egyptians called pyramids PR.
He is an agnostic and so am I. The possibility of some truth in the biblical narrative of the OT has militant atheists up in arms for good reason. Are you one of them? Truth of biblical narrative of the OT does not mean evidence of Yahweh or God, just remember that.
Your dogmatic acceptance of a chronology that rests entirely on a year old correlation and identification of Shishaq with Shoshenq I, reminds me a lot of the blind acceptance of God by the very group of people you appear to be scornful of.
Why would you blindly accept this then, instead of seeking different lines of enquiry? Many fringe science hypothesis and alternative theories have become scientific fact in the last 50 years or so, and the currently science-accepted and wholly outdated biblical chronology, which lacks any serious archaeological evidence to support it, is the stuff of Hollywood movies!
Roth was a musician for 30 years until he became an amateur Egyptologist. He is not a credible source. His theories rejected by the entire Egyptologist community but endorsed by the young earth creationists.
Are you one? I will continue to accept the traditional timeline accepted and supported by legitimate Egyptologists until such time as a one comes forward with a new version. As for the desire to link the bible with established archology it has never worked and it never will. You can wish all you want but in the end science real science will not answer those wises any more than an imaginary entity or Mr Roth. The existing timeline and chronology of sojourn, exodus and conquer is at fault.
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We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. Skip to main content. The Papyrus Written in a single papyrus, the Admonitions of Ipuwer, catalogue name Papyrus Leiden is a poetic composition believed to have been written during the Egyptian Middle Kingdom era, a period corresponding to BC - BC. Marina is Read More. Login or Register in order to comment. Gnarlodious wrote on 7 November, - Permalink.
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Does the Ipuwer Papyrus Provide Evidence for the Events of the Exodus?
Neither the beginning nor end of this work was preserved, leaving historians with difficulty in interpreting the material and reaching a final conclusion about the events it describes. Written in a single papyrus, the Admonitions of Ipuwer, catalogue name Papyrus Leiden is a poetic composition believed to have been written during the Egyptian Middle Kingdom era, a period corresponding to BC - BC. The origin of acquisition regarding this document is obscure. It was in possession of the Greek diplomat and merchant Yianni Anastasiou who claimed that the papyrus was discovered at Memphis, in the Saqqara region. The papyrus is fully inscribed from beginning to end on both sides. It consists of 17 complete and incomplete columns of writing.
In the early 19th Century a papyrus, dating from the end of the Middle Kingdom, was found in Egypt. It was taken to the Leiden Museum in Holland and interpreted by A. Gardiner in The complete papyrus can be found in the book Admonitions of an Egyptian from a heiratic papyrus in Leiden.
The Ipuwer Papyrus and the Exodus
In the spring of , Immanuel Velikovsky left pondered what kind of natural catastrophe had turned the plain of Sodom and Gomorrah into the lake which Joshua and the Israelites came upon after the Exodus. He pondered the plagues described in the Book of Exodus, whether or not they were real and whether or not there was an Egyptian version of them. In search of just such a document, he soon discovered in a reference book the mention of an Egyptian papyrus by a sage named Ipuwer declaring that the Nile River was blood. Locating and studying the English translation of the papyrus by Alan Gardiner, he was struck by the fact that the papyrus seemed to be a description of a great natural disaster. To Velikovsky, however, it appeared to be more than that.