Quality and Qualities pp Cite as. In this chapter we examine formal education development in post-independence Kenya. We place particular emphasis on key challenges to providing education of sufficient quality to assure that all Kenyan students acquire the capacities they need to participate as productive citizens in their local, national, and global communities. Our focus is on national policy initiatives for education reform that were developed under successive government leaders. Unable to display preview.

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It was overly charged with the task of reviewing the national education and training for the next decade and beyond and makes recommendations there too. It started its work in January under the chairmanship of Mr. James M. Kamunge thus the name the Kamunge commission. In , the system of education was implemented. Though this system had very good objectives, its implementation was haphazardly done leading to a number of changes for example abrupt changes in the curriculum which did not allow the teaching fraternity and the learner to adjust, heavy work load and the introduction of technical or vocational oriented subjects.

The main aim of this education system was to produce a person that could employ him or her instead of waiting for an office job. Therefore, it was a commission that worked under crisis of the changes posed by the new system of education, one being the high cost of education, it was because of this reason that in May , it was requested as a matter of urgency to examine and make proposals on cost sharing a strategy for financing education and training in the country.

This sub report was submitted to the retired president in November It could not have been a coincidence that as the commissioners released the report in , the World Bank also released a very influential document on education.

Actually it was meant partly to prevail upon the African government to move toward initiating greater liberalization of education and contentment of structural adjustment programme SAPS. This document was a turning point in education sector in Africa in general, and Kenya in particular. Kamunge Prof. Bethwel A. Ogot Dr. Benjamin E. Kipkori Prof. Philip M. Mbithi Mr. Solomon W. Karanja Dr. Julia A. Ajiambo Dr. Jared B.

Kangwana Mr. Samwel S. Maneno Mr. Ambrose A. Odongo Rev. John G. Nzeki Mr. Tom D. Owour Mr. Ben T. Mwangi Mr. Aron K. Kandie Mr. John W. Recommend ways and means of sustaining the momentum of educational growth without sacrificing quality and relevance.

Recommend ways and means of providing at both the primary and secondary levels, greater opportunities for the majority of candidates who do not proceed for further formal education. Recommend means of improving quality of education in all institutions public, harambee and private. Recommend means of harmonizing and coordinating curriculum, examinations and certification for all educational and training institutions. Recommend ways of making optimum use of existing facilities and personnel in education and training at all levels.

To recommend ways and means of expanding and strengthening special education. Recommend ways and means of establishing and developing centers of excellence in education, training and research with a view of enhancing artistic, scientific and technical potential in Kenya. Recommend ways and means of orienting education and training towards education for life and create productivity. This was caused by: Increased demand for educational opportunities for a fast growing population. Government commitment to making education accessible to all Kenyans and training adequate manpower to meet the needs of a growing economy.

Commitment by parents, religious and private organizations to provision of education. Education should also develop skills and attitudes that lead to self-reliance, selfemployment and management of time work or leisure. It is embraced systems especially on its vocationalised curriculum which aimed at providing quality education and training. Therefore because of its vocational orientation, its implementation required;. The provision of additional and appropriate physical facilities, equipment, teaching and learning materials and qualified teachers.

A harmonized and coordinated curriculum, examinations and certification on order to sustain quality and relevance. There was need for cost sharing provision of education and training to beep up government budget on education in order to provide facilities, materials required in education.

This was to accelerate the expansion of education and training opportunities and increase access to education and training. That the national goals of education should be; Education to foster national unity.

Education to prepare and equip the youth with knowledge, skills and expertise to enable them play an effective role in the life of the nation. Education must serve the needs of the nation. Education to provide for full development of talents and personality.

Education to provide social justice and morality, social obligations and responsibilities. Foster positive attitudes and consciousness towards other nations. To encourage parents, local authorities, communities and private organizations to establish more schools, colleges and universities to cater for the increased education demand.

Review the primary and secondary curriculum to allow for option in vocational subjects to show for more time to cover the content effectively. Kenya Institute of Education be utilized to develop all curriculums for national education and training programs. Kenya National Examination Council be responsible for all national examinations and certification except for universities universities operate as semi-autonomous organizations.

Inspectors training to aim at upgrading their academic and professional qualifications. Personal allowances that are given by government to students in training institutes including universities be discontinued end of boom. Government to continue to meet cost of education of ASAL arrears. Future secondary schools be established as day schools as a more cost effective way of expanding accessibility.

Meanwhile, the already established single and double stream be expanded to three streams as a more cost effective way of increasing enrollment. Research on early child education and child psychology be encouraged. Teachers in upper primary be assigned to teach subjects studied and passed in K. E or equivalent for efficient material delivery and offering of quality education.

Secondary schools that were developed and equipped by government and provided with teaching personnel from public funds be designated to public 7. The government stream also used to get grants. Training education be expanded to produce more professionally qualified university graduates for secondary school. Then the number was out of the 22, secondary school teachers then.

Guidance and counseling be made practical in secondary schools and senior teachers be responsible to train them to appreciate their role to work, develop right attitude towards discipline, to be able to manage time. They catered for dropout thus cutting down on waste.

Special schools be utilized to cater for only the severe and profound mentally impaired the visually impaired be integrated in regular schools together with the physically handicapped. However, there are a number of challenged they face in schools. No facilities for them.

Attitude of the able people which could make them develop reactions like Withdrawal. Rudeness Postgraduate diploma be expanded to train more graduate teachers. This can be diversified to include technical and special education to cater for the shortage.

Bachelor of Education programme in universities to take 5 years in the new system of education. The development of public universities be coordinated and harmonized. Kenyatta University was offering Arts and Education. Egerton University was offering agriculture. Moi University was offering Technology and Ethical Science.

Only Nairobi had expanded faculties. KESI be established as a body corporate with its own staff managers and be a center of excellence in education, management, training and research. This was due to the recommendations being very close to the heart of the government then.

It altered the financing of education, relieving the government part of the burden of financing education. This was highly appreciated by the World Bank which chose the chairman to head the country education desk as the chief consultant of education.

A move aimed at fully implementing the working party recommendations the agenda was to implement the clause for cost sharing in education. This document remains the only credible document guiding education sector since the master plan on education and training was shelved by the government.





Education Development in Kenya


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