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Sign in Create an account. Syntax Advanced Search. Jobs in this area. Lingnan University. Notre Dame Institute for Advanced Study. Options 1 filter applied. Export this page: Choose a format.. Off-campus access. Using PhilPapers from home? Create an account to enable off-campus access through your institution's proxy server. Be alerted of all new items appearing on this page. Editorial team. Add an entry to this list:.

We find a possible solution to the Past Hypothesis problem. Philosophy of Cosmology in Philosophy of Physical Science. Physics of Time in Philosophy of Physical Science. Symmetry in Physics in Philosophy of Physical Science. Philosophers of physics have long debated whether the Past State of low entropy of our universe calls for explanation.

In this article we analyze this notion, distinguishing between several possible meanings that may be attached to it. Epistemic Norms in Epistemology. Explanation in General Philosophy of Science. Maxwell in in order to show that the Second Law of thermodynamics is not universal, since it has a counter-example.

Since the Second Law is taken by many to provide an arrow of time, the threat to its universality threatens the account of temporal directionality as well. We do so by analyzing a particular but highly idealized experimental setup and proving that it violates the Second Law. Our discussion is in the framework of standard quantum mechanics; we give two separate arguments in the framework of quantum mechanics with and without the projection postulate.

We address in our analysis the connection between measurement and erasure interactions and we show how these notions are applicable in the microscopic quantum mechanical structure. One implication of our analysis is that the Second Law cannot provide a universal lawlike basis for an account of the arrow of time; this account has to be sought elsewhere. Dualism, Misc in Philosophy of Mind. In this paper I focus on the statistical postulate, and I have three aims.

First, I wish to argue that regarding the statistical postulate as a probability postulate may be too strong: a postulate about typicality would be enough. Second, I wish to show that there is no need to postulate anything, Finally, I discuss how the attempts to give preference to certain stochastic quantum theories such as the spontaneous collapse theory over deterministic alternatives on the basis that they do not need the statistical postulate fail.

Chance and Determinism in Philosophy of Probability. Science, Logic, and Mathematics. This book explores whether physics points to a reductive or an emergent structure of the world and proposes a physics-motivated conception of emergence that leaves behind many of the problematic intuitions shaping the philosophical conceptions. Examining several detailed case studies reveals results that point to stability conditions playing a crucial though underappreciated role in the physics of emergence.

This contextual emergence has thought-provoking consequences for physics and beyond. Concepts of Emergence in Metaphysics. Yet the literally and metaphorically marginal status of the cell membrane made it the site of clashes over the definition of life and the proper way to study it. By examining how the histories of plant physiology and physical chemistry intertwined through the artificial cell, I argue that modern biology relocated vitality from protoplasmic living matter to nonliving chemical substances—or, in broader cultural terms, that the disenchantment of life was accompanied by the re enchantment of ordinary matter.

Artificial Life in Philosophy of Biology. Biophysics in Philosophy of Physical Science. Causation in Biology in Philosophy of Biology.

History of Biology in Philosophy of Biology. History of Chemistry in Philosophy of Physical Science. History of Physics in Philosophy of Physical Science. Life in Philosophy of Biology. Reduction in Biology in Philosophy of Biology.

Vitalism in Philosophy of Biology. Astrophysics in Philosophy of Physical Science. General Relativity in Philosophy of Physical Science. Quantum Theories in Philosophy of Physical Science.

Infinite idealizations appear in our best scientific explanations of phase transitions. This is thought by some to be paradoxical. In this paper I connect the existing literature on the phase transition paradox to work on the concept of indispensability, which arises in discussions of realism and anti-realism within the philosophy of science and the philosophy of mathematics.

I formulate a version of the phase transition paradox based on the idea that infinite idealizations are explanatorily indispensable to our best science, and I go on to offer a solution to the paradox by drawing a distinction between two types of indispensability: constructive and substantive indispensability. I argue that infinite idealizations are constructively indispensable to explanations of phase transitions, but not substantively indispensable.

This helps to resolve the paradox, I maintain, since realist commitment tracks substantive, and not constructive, indispensability. In this first part of a two-part paper, we describe efforts in the early decades of this century to restrict the extent of violations of the Second Law of thermodynamics that were brought to light by the rise of the kinetic theory and the identification of fluctuation phenomena.

In the second part According to the case, they either return a presupposition that can be had without information theoretic consideration or they postulate a broader connection between information and entropy than can be sustained. The thermal time hypothesis is a proposed solution to the problem of time: every statistical state determines a thermal dynamics according to which it is in equilibrium, and this dynamics is identified as the flow of physical time in generally covariant quantum theories.

Two technical challenges concern the implementation of the TTH in the classical limit and the relationship between thermal time and proper time. Two more conceptual problems focus on interpreting the flow of time in non-equilibrium states and the lack of gauge invariance. Quantum Gravity in Philosophy of Physical Science. Time and Change in Metaphysics. Pinker, one of the foremost defenders of the widespread computational theory of mind, has argued that thought is simply a type of computation, and that the gap between human cognition and computational models may be illusory.

In this Kahneman provides further theoretical interpretation by differentiating the two assumed systems of the cognitive functioning of the human mind. He calls them intuition determined to be an associative machine, and reasoning required to be voluntary and to operate logical-deductively.

This result indicates that when the system 2 is shut down, both an intelligent being, as well as a binary machine, incur the same minimum energy cost per unit of information processed, which mathematically shows the computational attribute of the system 1, as Kahneman theorized. The multiple-computations theorem implies that certain physical systems implement simultaneously more than one computation. To this end we provide accounts of both ideas in terms of Implementing Computations in Philosophy of Computing and Information.

This chapter unfolds a central philosophical problem of statistical mechanics. This problem lies in a clash between the Static Probabilities offered by statistical mechanics and the Dynamic Probabilities provided by classical or quantum mechanics.

The chapter looks at the Boltzmann and Gibbs approaches in statistical mechanics and construes some of the great controversies in the field — for instance the Reversibility Paradox — as instances of this conflict. It furthermore argues that a response to this conflict is a critical choice The idea that, in the microscopic world, particles are indistinguishable, interchangeable and without identity has been central in quantum physics.

The same idea has been enrolled in statistical thermodynamics even in a classical framework of analysis to make theoretical results agree with experience. In thermodynamics of gases, this hypothesis is associated with several problems, logical and technical.

For this case, an alternative theoretical framework is provided, replacing the indistinguishability hypothesis with standard probability and statistics. In this framework, entropy is a Rather, the extensive entropy used in thermodynamics is the difference of two probabilistic entropies. According to this simple view, no paradoxical behaviors, such as the Gibbs paradox, appear. Such a simple probabilistic view within a classical physical framework, in which entropy is none other than uncertainty applicable irrespective of particle size, enables generalization of mathematical descriptions of processes across any type and scale of systems ruled by uncertainty.

We analyze the effects of the introduction of new mathematical tools on an old branch of physics by focusing on lattice fluids, which are cellular automata -based hydrodynamical models. We examine the nature of these discrete models, the type of novelty they bring about within scientific practice and the role they play in the field of fluid dynamics.

We conversely claim that CA-based models of fluids, though at first sight blatantly misrepresenting fluids, are in fact conservative as far as the basic laws of statistical physics are concerned and not less theoretical than more traditional models in the field. Based on our case-study, we propose a general discussion of the prospect of CA for modeling in physics.

We finally emphasize that lattice fluids are not just exotic oddities but do bring about new advantages in the investigation of fluids' behavior. Complexity in Philosophy of Physical Science. Theories and Models in General Philosophy of Science. Even though the second law of thermodynamics holds the supreme position among the laws of nature, as stated by many distinguished scientists, notably Eddington and Einstein, its position appears to be also quite peculiar.

Given the atomic nature of matter, whose behavior is well described by statistical physics, the second law could not hold unconditionally, but only statistically. It is not an absolute law. As a result of this, in the present paper we try to argue that we have not Here we propose a modified Szilard engine which operates without any steps in the process resembling the creation or destruction of information.


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The project aims to develop military protection systems based on new types of metallic materials. The researcher is expected to participate to the activities related to the alloys design, preparation, casting and rapid solidification. The position is full time and is available starting this year throughout the project completion, with a minimum of 2 years extension offered by the hosting institution. Murty, J. Yeh, S. The responsibility for the jobs published on this website, including the job description, lies entirely with the publishing institutions.


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