Installation von Programmen. Sie wurde Anfang der er-Jahre von Guido van Rossum entwickelt. Eine alternative und schneller Implementierung ist z. Welche Version installiert ist, zeigt der folgende Befehl im Terminal [1] :.

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Like most modern operating systems, Linux has two available interfaces for user input. All of the settings that you set via the graphical user interface GUI can also be made in the form of command line directives via the so-called shell. Shell is a program that functions as an interface between system and user. It includes a command line interpreter that accepts user input via the keyboard, evaluates them, starts programs if necessary , and returns the output in the form of a text entry to the user.

In addition, each shell has its own programming language which makes it possible to write shell scripts — for example, to link program calls and facilitate administrative tasks. Each shell runs in a terminal. At the beginning of the computer age, independent devices, or so-called hardcopy terminals printer or screen plus keyboard , were used. These were replaced on modern computers by terminal emulators — programs that provide users with a graphical window for interacting with the shell.

As soon as you access the terminal of your operating system, is starts the standard shell i. Over time, various shells for unix-like operating systems have been developed which differ in terms of functionality and user-friendliness.

As a Linux user, you have the choice of which command line interpreter to use. On most operating systems, multiple shells are already installed. The switch from one shell to another can be comfortably carried out from the terminal see chsh in the user account management chapter. Among the most popular shells, beside the standard programs Bash and Dash , are Fish , Z-shell , Korn-shell , t csh , and Mksh.

Interaction with the shell usually happens via commands, which can be used to call command line programs of the same name. For every action that you want to carry out via the terminal, use a program call following this basic scheme:.

A program call via the terminal uses the name of the program. Most programs offer the possibility to address certain program functions via options. If a program expects arguments — i. In the following sections, we offer an overview of the most common Linux commands and their associated command line programs.

Older entries remain in the scrollback buffer. Use the help command to see a list of all integrated shell commands built-in commands. Call help in combination with a shell command to retrieve a short description of the demand in question.

This function serves as entry assistance, and allows you to look through the list of previous commands using the arrow keys and press ENTER again to confirm. You also have the option to view the complete list, numbered in the terminal. If you want to filter the results, combine history via Pipe with the command line program grep see search options and a keyword. No worries. Under Linux, there are various help and documentation pages available directly via the terminal, such as the Unix man-pages and GNU info pages.

These contain a detailed description of all command line programs, system calls, configuration files, file formats, and core functions. With whatis and apropos , you can find command line programs in the help pages category, which allow you to search the manual pages of your operating system for keywords. The command line program gives you all matches, including a brief description in the terminal.

The command supports different options. Via the info command, you can retrieve the GNU info pages for a specific topic. In most cases, these pages correspond to the manual pages that can be accessed via man , but as opposed to these, they have links that make the navigators in the manual simpler to read.

The man command opens the manual pages man-pages of your Linux distribution directly in the terminal. For example, if you want to open the manual page for a specific Linux command, use it in combination with the name of the command.

In both cases, the manual page opens to the command line directive clear. Use the [Q] key to close it and return to the prompt in the terminal. With pinfo , you have a variant of the command line program info, which is based on the command line browser Lynx and issues information pages with highlighted links. The command line program whatis serves as a keyword search in the manual pages.

If there is a match, whatis gives a brief description in the terminal. The most important command line directives in this category are cd, ls, mkdir, and rmdir.

The command line directive cd stands for change directory , and is used for navigation in the directory tree. If cd is used with a minus symbol after it - , it changes back to the previous directory. The chroot command short for change root is used to execute a command in a different root directory. For example, chroot is used to isolate critical programs from the rest of the file system. The command line directive ls stands for list and is used to display the content of a directory the names of all files and folders found in the given directory.

If ls is used without a directory entry, then the command lists the content of the current directory. The command line directive mkdir stands for make directory , and allows Linux users to make new directories.

You can also create multiple directories at the same time by placing the names separated by a space:. If a directory is supposed to be created in a particular target directory, then specify the absolute or relative path to the directory. With mkdirhier you can create entire directory hierarchies with a single command line directive:. If directory1 and directory2 already exist, mkdirhier only creates directory3. Otherwise, all three directories are created. Use pwd short for print working directory to output the name of the current working directory.

If you want to delete a particular directory, use the command line directive rmdir remove directory according to the following syntax:. You can only delete empty directories with rmdir. To delete a directory along with all of its contained files and subfolders, use the command rm remove with the option —r. Selected directories are irreversibly deleted. While ls only lists the content of a directory, the command line directive tree can be used to output the entire directory hierarchy recursively as a tree structure.

The Linux commands in this chart allow you to carry out various file operations from the terminal. Use the Linux basic commands like cp, mv , and rm to copy, move, rename, or delate files on your system. A file path is passed to the command line directive basename , which simply returns the file name without a default path. The command line program cat short for concatenate was developed as a tool for the combination of file content and can be used as a pager for the display of file content in the terminal.

Use cat with the following syntax in the terminal to read a file and output it to stdout the standard output :. As opposed to diff , the alignment is done at the byte level and so is particularly suitable for binary files. Use the command line program comm to compare sorted files i. If come is called without options, the program generates an output with three columns: The first column contains all lines that only appear in FILE1 , the second column contains all lines only in FILE2 , and the third column contain all lines that appear in both files.

The command line directive cp copy is used to copy files and directories. The basic syntax of the command reads:. If you define an existing file as the target file, its contents are overwritten with the source file. You also have the option to create a new file with whatever name you choose as the target file. If you want to copy multiple files, then the target has to be a directory. The same goes for copying a directory.

If a directory is meant to be copied along with all its contents, then all subdirectories need to be included in the copy process using OPTION —R.

The cut command allows you to extract the contents of a file from the text line of a file i. The exact position of an extracted section is defined via the options —b byte position , -c character position , -d delimiter , and —f field. The command line program diff serves to compare two files. You can also use diff to determine if two directories contain the same files. The command line directive allows you to extract the path portion from a file path and output it in the terminal without file names.

With the command line directive file you can output information about the file type of a file. The command line program ln short for link generates a shortcut to a file or a directory. This creates another directory entry for this file, which allows you to access the respective file via another file path. The call for the command line program has to always contain at least the path to the source file.

By default, ln creates so-called hardlinks. So the command is often used with OPTION —s -- symbolic , with which symbolic links can also be created beyond file system boundaries. As a rule, the options are used to limit this output. The command line directive md5sum helps you calculate and check MD5 checksums for files.

The command line program mv move copies a file or directory and deletes the original element. Similar to cat , the command line program paste also enables the output of file contents to the standard output. But while cat merely combines content, paste joins column by column.

In standard mode, the listed files are merged so that all rows with the same row number are transferred to the same line in the output.

Every line in the output contains content from all input files. You can customize which separator is used by paste with the option -d. Tabs are used as the default separator. A second mode can be activated using the -s option serial. With this, all lines of the first input file are transferred to the first line of the output.

The data for all other input files follows in separate output lines, so each line of the output contains the contents of only one input file. The command line program rename enables the renaming of files and folders with the help of Perl-compatible regular expressions regex.


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Jump to navigation. As I spend more and more time in terminal sessions, it feels like I'm continually finding new commands that make my daily tasks more efficient. The GNU history command is one that really changed my work day. The GNU history command keeps a list of all the other commands that have been run from that terminal session, then allows you to replay or reuse those commands instead of retyping them. If you are an experienced terminal user, you know about the power of history , but for us dabblers or new sysadmin folks, history is an immediate productivity gain. First of all, the history command isn't actually a command.


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Linux is fun! Mind me at the end of this article you will have to believe that Linux is actually a fun box. You would be familiar with telnet. Telnet is a text-oriented bidirectional network protocol over network. Here is nothing to be installed. What you should have is a Linux box and a working Internet. Time for some Mathematics , this command output all the possible factors of a given number.


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