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The impact of future summer temperature on public health in Barcelona and Catalonia , Spain. Several epidemiological studies have reported associations between increases in summer temperatures and risks of premature mortality. The quantitative implications of predicted future increases in summer temperature, however, have not been extensively characterized. We first used case-crossover analysis to estimate the association between temperature and mortality for each of these cities for the period to These exposure-response ER functions were then combined with local measures of current and projected changes in population, mortality and temperature for the years and Several different ER functions were examined and significant associations between temperature and mortality were observed for all four cities.

For , the estimate increases to 1, deaths per year during the warm season. In comparing these predicted impacts with current causes of mortality, they clearly represent significant burdens to public health in Catalonia.

Synoptic analysis of heat waves in the Barcelona city Catalonia , Spain during 21st century. The impact of extremely warm episodes on health has been analysed by a large number of studies conducted in different countries and cities, showing that heat waves events HWE can cause an abrupt increase in mortality.

The aim of this study is to identify synoptic patterns associated to HWE in Barcelona over the 21st century and evaluate the impact and possible mitigations. To achieve it, a multivariate analysis MVA integrating different atmospheric levels sea level pressure, temperature at hPa and geopotential at hPa was undertaken.

The observed data used for this study was the 20th Century Reanalysis. The model was calibrated given the variability in the climate scenario, using the Quantile-Quantile mapping transformation Q-Q. The MVA applied to the observed period distinguish three main synoptic patterns: two dynamic configurations produced by southern fluxes related to an Atlantic low, associated with HWE recorded in southern Europe, and a third pattern identified by a stagnation situation related to persistent anticyclone periods.

These patterns were also detected in the control simulated period after the Q-Q calibration, preserving, therefore, the climatic variability: the number of HWE during the warm period is twice more than during the cold period due to an intensification of the warm masses.

In the RCP 4. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Abstract: This paper looks at the role that bullfighting and FC Barcelona have played in the growing independence movement in Catalonia. I conclude that bullfighting and soccer have been used by political parties and those associated with the nationalist movement to foster feelings of difference with Spain. These feelings have been passed from the top down to the Catalan people and risk alienating those who are not in agreement with the nationalist movement.

Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Catalonia Spain. The incidence of HZ in Catalonia was estimated by extrapolating the incidence data from Navarre Spain to the population of Catalonia. Drug costs were obtained directly from the prescriptions included in the medical record according to official prices published by the General Council of the College of Pharmacists.

The cost of care was obtained by applying the tariffs of the Catalan Health Institute to the number of outpatient visits and the number and duration of hospital admissions. The respective figures for PHN were and The mean cost per patient was markedly higher in cases of PHN The cost increased with age in both groups of patients. This is the first Spanish study of the disease burden of HZ in which epidemiological data and costs were collected directly from medical records.

The estimated incidence of HZ is probably similar to the real incidence. It is also probable that the costs may be an underestimate as the costs derived from the prodromal phase were not included. Catalonia and Spain at the crossroads: financial and economic aspects. In some large European countries, in recent decades, economic globalization has gone hand in hand with a powerful trend to political decentralization this has been the case in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain.

In Spain , and after years of apparent stability, the relations between Catalonia and Spain are experiencing troubled times. This paper examines particularly the main economic effects of both the staying together and the secession scenarios. Following the introduction, the Examines Catalan's remarkable revival in Catalonia Spain in the past 20 years.

Discusses the referendum designating "autonomous communities," their languages having co-official status with Spanish; increases in Catalan usage in many sectors and among the young; Catalan usage in education; and challenges related to bilingual….

Full Text Available Purpose: the work presented is a descriptive, contextual and detailed analysis of the activity, and the conclusions developed in the first international accounting conference held in Barcelona. This association proposed holding regular meetings to discuss and study technical accounting and economic issues related to that time. Approach: the originality of the work lies in being an analytical description of the original documents prepared by the Association of Accountants of Catalonia about the conference.

Limitations: the biggest limitation of the work comes from the lack of written documentation existing on this conference. Value: the present study continues the research on topics of history of accounting in Catalonia. It is expected to complement this work by a deeper analysis of the contents and the topics covered in the papers presented at the conference, and by linking them with the theoretical accounting lines existing at that time.

The study on the multiple links among polycentricity, performance, and planning within the Barcelona metropolitan region yields learning potential for other metropolitan regions because there exists, for example, a strong historical planning tradition in Catalonia and ideas on polycentric development have been around for many decades. This enables the study of transition patterns in the conceptualization of polycentric development in planning over time.

Even the most recent plan for the Barcelona metropolitan region, the Barcelona Metropolitan Territorial Plan, is influenced by a planning vision of polycentricity that was coined by the Director Scheme of the Barcelona Metropolitan Area. Research methods This dissertation employs several research methods to explore how the multiple relationships among polycentricity, performance, and planning manifest themselves in the Barcelona metropolitan region.

Additionally, this thesis employs quantitative methods such as descriptive statistics, correspondence analysis, simple regression models, and advanced regression models in which both spatial autocorrelation and endogeneity issues are controlled to avoid biased estimation results to address the second general question, which refers to how polycentricity has been identified and measured in research and how this identification and measurement of polycentricity can inform planning practice.

Finally, this research uses. The model is governed by the following principles: 1 The citizen as owner of the data: direct access to his data and right to exercise his opposition's privileges; 2 Generate confidence in the system: security and confidentiality strength; 3 Shared model of information management: publishing system and access to organized and structured information, keeping in mind that the NHS of Catalonia is formally an "Integrated system of healthcare public use" catalan acronym: SISCAT with a wide variety of legal structures within its healthcare institutions; 4 Use of communication standards and catalogs as a need for technological and functional integration.

In summary: single system of medical records shared between different actors, using interoperability tools and whose development is according to the legislation applicable in Catalonia and within its healthcare system.

The result has been the establishment of a set of components and relation rules among which we highlight the following: 1 Display of information that collects sociodemographic data of the citizen, documents or reports radiology, laboratory, therapeutic procedures, hospital release, emergency room , diagnostic health, prescription and immunization plus a summary screen with the most recent and relevant references; 2 Set of tools helping the user and direct messaging between professionals to facilitate their cooperation; 3 Model designed for supranational connections which will allow adding later, with ad hoc rules, clinical data provided by the private health sector or the proper citizen.

All rights reserved. Application of seasonal forecasting for the drought forecasting in Catalonia Spain. Low flows and droughts are a hydro-climatic feature in Spain Alvarez et al, The construction of dams as water reservoirs has been a usual tool to manage the water resources for agriculture and livestock, industries and human needs MIMAM, , The last drought that has affected Spain has last four years in Catalonia , from to the spring of , and it has been particularly hard as a consequence of the precipitation deficit in the upper part of the rivers that nourish the main dams.

This problem increases when the water scarcity affects very populated areas, like big cities. The Barcelona city, with more than 3. One of the objectives of the SOSTAQUA project is to improve the water resources management in real time, in order to improve the water supply in the cities in the framework of sustainable development.

The work presented here deals with the application of seasonal forecasting to improve the water management in Catalonia , particularly in drought conditions. A seasonal prediction index has been created as a linear combination of climatic data and the ECM4 prediction that has been validated too. This information has implemented into a hydrological model and it has been applied to the last drought considering the real water demands of population, as well as to the water storage evolution in the last months.

It has been found a considerable advance in the forecasting of water volume into reservoirs. The advantage of this methodology is that it only requires seasonal forecasting free through internet. Due to the fact that the principal rivers that supply water to Barcelona , birth on the Pyrenees and Pre-Pyrenees region, the analysis and precipitation forecasting is focused on this region Zaragoza, To describe the actual presence of smoking in restaurant and hospitality premises after the smoking prevention act banning smoking in workplaces came into force in , with wide exemptions in this sector.

We performed an observational, descriptive study in Barcelona Catalonia , Spain in based on cluster sampling, with premises. The results were stratified by premise type. Up to There are more smoke-free options in central districts and in shopping malls. These results show the limitations of the law. Published by Elsevier Espana. The purpose of this article is disclose services utilization patterns among the Catalan population with particular emphasis on primary care, specialised care, hospital care and emergency care.

A number of logistic regression models were used to explain the utilization of the various types of services. Variables in the analysis included self-perceived need, lifestyles, and sociodemographic variables. Separate analyses were performed for male, female, adults, and children as well as for the general population. Women use all types of services more often than men. Children and people over 64 are more frequent users of primary care.

Primary care is also associated to lower socioeconomic conditions. Young adults and the migrant population in general are found to be under users of services, except of emergency care services. The use of specialised care is associated to the better-off, to those with university level education attainment, individual private insurance, and those living in the city of Barcelona. Hospital care is largely associated to need variables.

The use of health services is explained by self-perceived need as well as by demographic, socioeconomic and geographical factors. Has the economic crisis widened the intraurban socioeconomic inequalities in mortality? The case of Barcelona , Spain. There is considerable evidence demonstrating socioeconomic inequalities in mortality, some of which focuses on intraurban inequalities.

However, all the studies assume that the spatial variation of inequalities is stable over the time. We challenge this assumption and propose two hypotheses: i have spatial variations in socioeconomic inequalities in mortality at an intraurban level changed over time? In this paper, our objective is to assess the effect of the economic recession on the spatio-temporal variation of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in Barcelona Catalonia , Spain.

We used a spatio-temporal ecological design to analyse mortality inequalities at small area level in Barcelona. Mortality data and socioeconomic indicators correspond to the years and We specified spatio-temporal ecological mixed regressions for both men and women using two indicators, neighbourhood and year.

We allowed the coefficients of the socioeconomic variables to differ according to the levels and explicitly took into account spatio-temporal adjustment. For men and women both absolute and, above all, relative risks for mortality have increased since In relative terms, this means that the risk of dying has increased much more in the most economically deprived neighbourhoods than in the more affluent ones. Although the geographical pattern in relative risks for mortality in neighbourhoods in Barcelona remained very stable between and , socioeconomic inequalities in mortality at an intraurban level have surged since A Mediterranean derecho: Catalonia Spain , 17th August


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